attansic l2 lancard onboard

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u should have l2 driver download from somewhere. i forgot. but u could ask me for it.. email me to
the file is L2-linuxdriver-new.rar
many forum said that linux have some trouble using attansic l2 atheros chipset. but there’s a way.
heres’ the step in slackware

copy the result to /lib/modules/’uname -r’/kernel/drivers/net/
#depmod -a
#modprobe atl2
#ifconfig #to check

if it work then make sure the modules is loaded in each boot.
create a file
#nano /etc/rc.d/rc.netdevice

/sbin/modprobe atl2

but i also create /etc/rc.local fill in with /sbin/modprobe atl2 too.. just to make sure.
seems to work if rc.netdevice failed.

UNIX and its variants

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Year Event
1957 Bell Labs found they needed an operating system for their computer center which at the time was running various batch jobs. The BESYS operating system was created at Bell Labs to deal with these needs.
1965 Bell Labs was adopting third generation computer equipment and decided to join forces with General Electric and MIT to create Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service).
1969 By April 1969, AT&T made a decision to withdraw Multics and go with GECOS. When Multics was withdrawn Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie needed to rewrite an operating system in order to play space travel on another smaller machine (a DEC PDP-7 [Programmed Data Processor 4K memory for user programs). The result was a system which a punning colleague called UNICS (UNiplexed Information and Computing Service)–an ’emasculated Multics’.
1969 Summer 1969 Unix was developed.
1969 Linus Torvalds is born.
1971 First edition of Unix released 11/03/1971. The first edition of the “Unix PROGRAMMER’S MANUAL [by] K. Thompson [and] D. M. Ritchie.” It includes over 60 commands like: b (compile B program); boot (reboot system); cat (concatenate files); chdir (change working directory); chmod (change access mode); chown (change owner); cp (copy file); ls (list directory contents); mv (move or rename file); roff (run off text); wc (get word count); who (who is one the system). The main thing missing was pipes.
1972 Second edition of Unix released 12/06/1972
1972 Ritchie rewrote B and called the new language C.
1973 Unix had been installed on 16 sites (all within AT&T/Western Electric); it was publically unveiled at a conference in October.
1973 Third edition of Unix released February 1973
1973 Forth edition of Unix released November 1973
1974 Fifth edition of Unix released June 1974
1974 Thompson went to UC Berkeley to teach for a year, Bill Joy arrived as a new graduate student. Frustrated with ed, Joy developed a more featured editor em.
1975 Sixth edition of Unix released May 1975
1975 Bourne shell is introduced begins being added onto.
1977 1BSD released late 1977
1978 2BSD released mid 1978
1979 Seventh edition of Unix released January 1979
1979 3BSD released late 1979
1979 SCO founded by Doug and Larry Michels as Unix porting and consulting company.
1980 4.0BSD released October 1980
1982 SGI introduces IRIX.
1983 SCO delivers its first packaged Unix system called SCO XENIX System V for Intel 8086 and 8088 processor-based PCs.
1984 Ultrix 1.0 was released.
1985 Eighth edition of Unix released February 1985
1985 The GNU manifesto is published in the March 1985 issue of Dr. Dobb’s Journal. The GNU project starts a year and a half later.
1986 HP-UX 1.0 released.
1986 Ninth edition of Unix released September 1986
1987 Sun and AT&T lay the groundwork for business computing in the next decade with an alliance to develop Unix System V Release 4.
1988 HP-UX 2.0 released.
1988 HP-UX 3.0 released.
1989 SCO ships SCO Unix System V/386, the first volume commercial product licensed by AT&T to use the Unix System trademark.
1989 HP-UX 7.0 released.
1989 Tenth edition of Unix released October 1989
1990 AIX short for Advanced Interactive eXecutive was first entered into the market by IBM February 1990.
1991 Sun unveils Solaris 2 operating environment, specially tuned for symetric multiprocessing.
1991 Linux is introduced by Linus Torvalds, a student in Finland. Who post to the comp.os.minix newsgroup with the words:Hello everybody out there using minix -

I'm doing a (free) operating system (just a hobby, won't be big and professional like gnu) for 386(486) AT clones.

1991 HP-UX 8.0 released.
1991 BSD/386 ALPHA First code released to people outside BSDI 12/xx/1991
1992 HP-UX 9.0 released.
1993 NetBSD 0.8 released 04/20/1993
1993 FreeBSD 1.0 released December of 1993
1994 Red Hat Linux is introduced.
1994 Caldera, Inc was founded in 1994 by Ransom Love and Bryan Sparks.
1994 NetBSD 1.0 released 10/26/1994
1995 FreeBSD 2.0 released 01/xx/1995
1995 SCO acquires Unix Systems source technology business from Novell Corporation (which had acquired it from AT&T’s Unix System Laboratories). SCO also acquires UnixWare 2 operating system from Novell.
1995 HP-UX 10.0 released.
1995 4.4 BSD Lite Release 2 the true final distribution from the CSRG 06/xx/1995
1996 KDE is started to be developed by Matthias Ettrich
1997 HP-UX 11.0 released.
1997 Caldera ships OpenLinux Standard 1.1 May 5, 1997, the second offering in Caldera’s OpenLinux product line
1998 IRIX 6.5 the fifth generation of SGI Unix is released July 6, 1998.
1998 SCO delivers UnixWare 7 operating system.
1998 Sun Solaris 7 operating system released.
1998 FreeBSD 3.0 released 10/16/1998
2000 FreeBSD 4.0 released 03/13/2000
2000 Caldera Systems Inc. announces that Caldera Systems has entered into agreement to acquire the SCO Server Software Division and the Professional Services Division.
2001 Microsoft files a trademark suit against in December.
2004 Lindows changes it’s name to Linspire April 14, 2004.

connect your pda to ubuntu

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souce :

Well, I beat my head against my computer for a few hours sorting this out through more forums and google searches than I care to admit. So, I decided to put together a straightforward HOWTO from my pain for your pleasure. This was done on a Ubuntu machine running 2.6.15-27-386 kernel first, and have ran it again on my Suse 10.1 machine at home using x86_64 arch. I run KDE (havent tested with gnome) using Kpilot. In order to get the whole kit of files and dependancies, I just grabbed kdepim, it has it all. So with that being said, I guess here goes.

*** Installing needed modules ***
# modprobe usbserial
# modprobe visor

*** Making sure they worked ***
# lsmod | grep vis
*** output should look something like this ***
visor 18828 0
usbserial 31336 1 visor
usbcore 130820 5 visor,usbserial,ehci_hcd,uhci_hcd

*** Device Making Time ***
# /bin/mknod /dev/ttyUSB0 c 188 0
# /bin/mknod /dev/ttyUSB1 c 188 1
# /bin/chmod 0666 /dev/ttyUSB?

*** getting info from the device ***
# cat /proc/bus/usb/devices *** basic info ***

# cat /proc/tty/driver/usbserial *** gives you product name ***
*** should look similar ***
usbserinfo:1.0 driver:2.0
0: module:visor name:”Handspring Visor / Palm OS” vendor:0830 product:0061 num_ports:2 port:1 path:usb-0000:00:1d.1-2
1: module:visor name:”Handspring Visor / Palm OS” vendor:0830 product:0061 num_ports:2 port:2 path:usb-0000:00:1d.1-2

# udevinfo -p /sys/class/tty/ttyUSB1 -a *** little more info ***

*** making it useable ***
# vi /etc/udev/rules.d/10-visor.rules
*** Below is the line to add in, all one line ***
BUS=”usb”, SYSFS{product}=”Palm Handheld*”, KERNEL=”ttyUSB[13579]”, SYMLINK=”pilot”

*** Restart udev ***
# /etc/init.d/udev restart

install inkscape 0.46

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thanks to my friend in
especially for website. it really solved my problem for compiling the inkscape.
here are the list of dependencies that i need to install inkscape in slackware 12.1.


i think it will be no much different with ubuntu

install cinelerra

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i also download cinelerra , the open source video editor from
and download the dependencies also.
here are the list

u can get em all in but u may ask me for send em all to u if u prefer that way.
my email

mac os x keyboard shortcut

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copied from

Keyboard Control

    The inside cover of Mac OS X Power Tools contains a list of selected keyboard shorcuts in OS X. Below is a more complete list, divided into sections based on where they are applicable. For mouse/keyboard actions, check out the “Modified Mousing” link to the left. (Letter keys are printed here in CAPS for clarity — you do not need to press the shift key unless explicitly instructed.) (NOTE: This page is in the process of being updated for full Panther compatibility.)

Startup and Login (see Chapter 3)

    command+option+O+F Invoke Open Firmware
    command+option+P+R Reset PRAM
    T Startup in FireWire Target Disk Mode
    option Invoke Startup Manager
    command+S Invoke single-user mode
    command+V Invoke verbose mode
    C Boot from CD/DVD
    X Boot into OS X (if you previously booted from OS 9 on the same volume)
    shift (immediately at startup) Safe boot
    shift (after boot screen, until login screen) Override auto-login
    shift (after login screen) Safe login
    option+escape, then click on a user Present name/password login dialog instead of list of users

System-wide (various chapters)

    option+volume up/down/mute Open Sound preferences
    option+brightness up/down Open Display preferences
    command+space Cycle through active keyboard layouts/scripts
    F12 Eject CD/DVD drive (hold down for two seconds)
    return or enter Select default button in dialog (OK, Open, Save, etc.)
    escape or command+. Exit/cancel dialog
    command+shift+Q Log out
    command+option+shift+Q Log out without confirmation dialog
    power button (laptops) or control+eject (desktops) Bring up Restart/Sleep/Shut Down dialog
    command+option+eject (desktops) Sleep computer immediately
    command+option+escape Bring up Force Quit window
    command+control+eject (desktops) Restart immediately (chance to save changes in open documents)
    command+option+control+eject (desktops) or
    command+option+control+power (laptops)
    Shutdown immediately (chance to save changes in open documents)
    command+control+power button Force restart (no chance to save changes in open documents)
    hold power button Force shutdown (no chance to save changes in open documents)

Universal Access (must be enabled in Universal Access preferences) (see Chapter 3)

    command+option+8 Toggle zoom (screen magnification) on/off
    command+option+= Zoom in
    command+option+- Zoom out
    command+option+control+8 Toggle display inversion (white-on-black) on/off
    shift (five times) Toggle Sticky Keys on/off
    option (five times) Toggle Mouse Keys on/off

Full Keyboard Access (see Chapter 3)

    control+F1 Toggle Full Keyboard Access on/off
    control+F2 (or control+M) Focus keyboard control on menu bar
    control+F3 (or control+D) Focus keyboard control on Dock
    control+F4 (or control+W) Focus keyboard control on active Window or cycle to next window
    control+F5 (or control+T) Focus keyboard control on toolbar
    control+F6 (or control+U) Focus keyboard control on palette (utility window)
    control+F7 In windows and dialogs, switch focus to text boxes/lists/controls
    arrow keys Navigate active item
    return, enter, or spacebar Select highlighted item
    return or enter Select default dialog control (OK, Yes, No, Save, Open, etc.)
    escape Cancel action, menu, or dialog

Finder: General (see Chapter 5)

    command+J Open View Options
    command+shift+delete Empty Trash (with confirmation dialog)
    command+option+shift+delete Empty Trash (without confirmation dialog)
    command+F Bring up Find dialog
    command+K Bring up Connect to Server dialog

Finder: Files and Folders (see Chapter 5)

    command+shift+N New Folder in active Finder window (including the Desktop)
    arrow keys Navigate items in active Finder window
    tab/shift+tab Select next/previous file or folder (alphabetically)
    type name of file/folder Select that file/folder
    return Edit file/folder name
    command+O Open selected item(s)
    command+I Open Get Info window for selected item(s)
    command+option+I Open File Inspector window
    command+D Duplicate selected item(s)
    command+L Create alias(es) for selected item(s)
    command+R (for aliases) Show target of selected alias (“reveal original”)
    command+T Add selected item(s) to Favorites (creates alias in Favorites folder)
    command+delete Move selected item(s) to Trash
    command+down arrow Open item(s); add option key to close current folder
    command+up arrow Switch to enclosing folder (if no windows are open, opens new window to Home); add option key to close current folder
    option+right arrow/left arrow (folders in list view) Toggle disclosure triangle for selected folder(s) open/closed
    command+option+right arrow/left arrow (folders in list view) Toggle disclosure triangle for all folder(s) open/closed

Finder: Windows (see Chapter 5; Application shortcuts, listed below, also apply to the Finder)

    command+N New Finder window
    command+1/2/3 View active window as Icons/List/Columns
    control+tab or control+I (in list view) Change column sorting; cycles columns left to right (add shift key to cycle right to left)
    command+B Show/hide window toolbar for active window
    command+shift+C/H/I/A/F Go to Computer / Home / iDisk / Applications / Favorites in active window (a new window will be opened if necessary)
    command+shift+G Bring up “Go to Folder” dialog in active window (a new window will be opened if necessary)
    command+[ or command+] Go back or forward in window view history
    command+W Close active Finder window
    command+option+W Close all Finder windows

Finder: Volumes/Media (see Chapter 5)

    command+E Eject volume/disc

Open/Save Dialog Shortcuts (see Chapter 5)

    tab Switch between browser and text fields
    arrow keys, page up/down Navigate in browser
    command+N Create new folder in the current directory
    command+D Change directory to Desktop
    command+shift+A Change directory to /Applications
    command+shift+C Change directory to Computer view (list of volumes)
    command+shift+F Change directory to Favorites folder
    command+shift+H Change directory to Home folder
    command+shift+I Change directory to iDisk (mounts iDisk if necessary)

Dock (see Chapter 6)

    command+option+D Toggle Dock auto-hide on/off
    command+tab Cycle through active applications; each tab press while holding command changes the application once. Add the shift key to cycle backwards. As long as you keep the command key pressed, you can also quit or hide applications as you cycle through them.

Applications, including the Finder (see Chapters 6 and 7)

    command+H Hide current application
    command+option+H Hide all other applications
    command+M Minimize active window to the Dock
    command+option+M Minimize all windows in active application to the Dock
    command+` Cycle through current application’s windows (add the shift to cycle backwards)
    command+, Open application preferences dialog (not universal yet, but becoming more common)

Screenshot (see Chapter 7)

(By default, screenshots are saved to the Desktop in PDF format; add the control key to any of the combinations below to copy the screenshot to the clipboard instead; you can then paste it into any graphics application — such as OS X’s Preview — and save it in any format you prefer.)
    command+shift+3 Full screenshot
    command+shift+4 Crosshair to allow selection of screenshot area
    command+shift+4, then spacebar Camera to capture specific screen object

Text-related shortcuts in Cocoa applications (see Chapter 7)



    in Terminal for complete list (in the list, ^ means the control key).

mac os command – console

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alias     Create an alias
alloc     List used and free memory
awk       Find and Replace text within file(s)

basename  Convert a full pathname to just a folder path
bash      Bourne-Again SHell (Linux)
bless     Set volume bootability and startup disk options.
break     Exit from a loop

cal       Display a calendar
case      Conditionally perform a command
cat       Display the contents of a file
cd        Change Directory
chflags   Change a file or folder's flags.
chgrp     Change group ownership
chmod     Change access permissions
chown     Change file owner and group
chroot    Run a command with a different root directory
cksum     Print CRC checksum and byte counts
clear     Clear terminal screen
cmp       Compare two files
comm      Compare two sorted files line by line
complete  Edit a command completion [word/pattern/list]
continue  Resume the next iteration of a loop
cp        Copy one or more files to another location
cron      Daemon to execute scheduled commands
crontab   Schedule a command to run at a later date/time
cut       Divide a file into several parts

date      Display or change the date & time
dc        Desk Calculator
dd        Data Dump - Convert and copy a file
defaults  The Mac OS X user defaults system.
df        Display free disk space
diff      Display the differences between two files
diff3     Show differences among three files
dig       DNS lookup
dirname   Convert a full pathname to just a path
dirs      Display list of remembered directories
diskutil  Disk utilities - Format, Verify, Repair
ditto     Copy files and folders
dot_clean Remove dot-underscore files
dscacheutil Query or flush the Directory Service/DNS cache
dscl      Directory Service command line utility
du        Estimate file space usage

echo      Display message on screen
ed        A line-oriented text editor (edlin)
enable    Stop or start printers and classes.
env       Set environment and run a utility
eval      Evaluate several commands/arguments
exec      Execute a command
exit      Exit the shell
expect    Programmed dialogue with interactive programs
         Also see AppleScript
expand    Convert tabs to spaces
expr      Evaluate expressions

false     Do nothing, unsuccessfully
fdisk     Partition table manipulator for Darwin UFS/HFS/DOS
find      Search for files that meet a desired criteria
fmt       Reformat paragraph text
fold      Wrap text to fit a specified width
for       Expand words, and execute commands
foreach   Loop, expand words, and execute commands
fsck      Filesystem consistency check and repair
fsaclctl  Filesystem enable/disable ACL support
fs_usage  Filesystem usage (process/pathname)
ftp       Internet file transfer program

GetFileInfo Get attributes of HFS+ files
getopt    Parse positional parameters
goto      Jump to label and continue execution
grep      Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern
groups    Print group names a user is in
gzip      Compress or decompress files

head      Display the first lines of a file
hdiutil   Manipulate iso disk images
history   Command History
hostname  Print or set system name

id        Print user and group names/id's
if        Conditionally perform a command
info      Help info
install   Copy files and set attributes

jobs      List active jobs
join      Join lines on a common field

kextfind  List kernel extensions
kill      Stop a process from running

l         List files in long format (ls -l)
ll        List files in long format, showing invisible files (ls -la)
less      Display output one screen at a time
ln        Make links between files (hard links, symbolic links)
locate    Find files
logname   Print current login name
login     log into the computer
logout    Exit a login shell (bye)
lpr       Print files
lprm      Remove jobs from the print queue
lpstat    Printer status information
ls        List information about file(s)
lsbom     List a bill of materials file
lsof      List open files

man       Help manual
mkdir     Create new folder(s)
mkfifo    Make FIFOs (named pipes)
more      Display output one screen at a time
mount     Mount a file system
mv        Move or rename files or directories

net       Manage network resources
networksetup Network and System Preferences
nice      Set the priority of a command
nohup     Run a command immune to hangups

onintr    Control the action of a shell interrupt
open      Open a file/folder/URL/Application
osascript Execute AppleScript

passwd    Modify a user password
paste     Merge lines of files
pbcopy    Copy data to the clipboard
pbpaste   Paste data from the Clipboard
pico      Simple text editor
ping      Test a network connection
pkgutil   List installed packages
pmset     Power Management settings
popd      Restore the previous value of the current directory
pr        Convert text files for printing
printenv  Print environment variables
printf    Format and print data
ps        Process status
pushd     Save and then change the current directory
pwd       Print Working Directory

quota     Display disk usage and limits

rcp       Copy files between machines.
repeat    Execute a command multiple times
rm        Remove files
rmdir     Remove folder(s)
rpm       Remote Package Manager
rsync     Remote file copy - Sync file tree (also RsyncX)

say       Convert text to audible speech
sched     Schedule a command to run at a later time.
screen    Multiplex terminal, run remote shells via ssh
screencapture Capture screen image to file or disk
sdiff     Merge two files interactively
security  Administer Keychains, keys, certificates and the Security framework
sed       Stream Editor
set       Set a shell variable = value
setenv    Set an environment variable = value
setfile   Set attributes of HFS+ files
shift     Shift positional parameters
shutdown  Shutdown or restart OS X
sleep     Delay for a specified time
softwareupdate System software update tool
sort      Sort text files
split     Split a file into fixed-size pieces
stop      Stop a job or process
su        Substitute user identity
sudo      Execute a command as another user
sum       Print a checksum for a file
switch    Conditionally perform a command
systemsetup Computer and display system settings

tail      Output the last part of files
tar       Tape ARchiver
tee       Redirect output to multiple files
test      Condition evaluation
textutil  Manipulate text files in various formats
time      Measure Program Resource Use
touch     Change file timestamps
traceroute Trace Route to Host
tr        Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
true      Do nothing, successfully
tty       Print filename of terminal on stdin
type      Describe a command

umask     Users file creation mask
umount    a device
unalias   Remove an alias
uname     Print system information
unexpand  Convert spaces to tabs
uniq      Uniquify files
units     Convert units from one scale to another
unset     Remove variable or function names
unsetenv  Remove environment variable
users     Print login names of users currently logged in
uuencode  Encode a binary file
uudecode  Decode a file created by uuencode

vi        Text Editor

wc        Print byte, word, and line counts
where     Report all known instances of a command
which     Locate a program file in the user's path
while     Execute commands
who       Print all usernames currently logged on
whoami    Print the current user id and name (`id -un')

xargs     Execute utility - passing arguments

copied from
yes       Print a string until interrupted

mac os x – error code sound

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Original IBM POST error codes
1 short beep – Normal POST – system is OK
2 short beeps – POST error – error code shown on screen
No beep – Power supply or system board problem
Continuous beep – Power supply, system board, or keyboard problem
Repeating short beeps – Power supply or system board problem or keyboard
1 long, 1 short beep – System board problem
1 long, 2 short beeps – Display adapter problem (MDA, CGA)
1 long, 3 short beeps – Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA)
3 long beeps – 3270 keyboard card

copied from